Principles of Ratio and Proportion

Principles of Ratio and Proportion

Principles of Ratio and Proportion

Principles of Ratio and Proportion

Q No-5: How the Principles of Ratio and Proportion are used in biological method?

Principles of Ratio and Proportion

Data Organization and Data Analysis

Data organization and data analysis are important steps in the biological method.
Data: Data can be defined as a single piece of information such as names, dates or values made from observations and experimentation.

          Data Organization:

 In order to formulate and then to test the hypotheses scientists collect and organize data. Through the use of variables and controls, results       can be determined.

Variables: Variables are those factors being tested in an experiment    and are usually compared to a control.

Control: A control is a known measure to which scientists can compare their results.
Prior to conducting an experiment it is very important for a scientist to describe the data collection methods. It ensures the quality of the experiment. Attention must be paid to ensure the data collection methods are kept balanced. Data is organized in different formats like graphics, tables, flow charts; maps and diagrams.

Principles of Ratio and Proportion

Data Analysis:

Data analysis is necessary to prove or disprove a hypothesis by experimentation. The methods involved in testing/analyzing the data are also important since an experiment should be repeated by others to ensure the quality of results. Depending on the type of data and the biological problem, this might include application of statistical methods i.e. ratio and proportion.

Ratio: When a relation between two numbers e.g. ‘a’ and b’ is expressed in terms of quotient (a/b), such a relation is the ratio of one number to the other. A ratio may be expressed by putting a division (÷) or colon (:) mark between the two numbers. For example the ratio between 50 malarial patients and 150 normal persons is 1:3.

Proportion: Proportion means to join the equal ratios by the sign of equality (=), For example; a:b=c:d is a proportion between the two ratios. This proportion may also be expressed as a:b:c:d.

In every proportion of two ratios are four terms i.e the first and fourth terms are called extremes, the second and third are called means. So in the above proportion ‘a’ and‘d’ are extremes while ‘b’ and ‘c’ are means. The-basic rule used to solve problems through ratios and proportion is that the product of the extremes is equal to the product of means. When we know three values in a proportion, the fourth one (X) can be calculated by using this rule. For example a biologist can calculate how many birds would get malaria when he allows infected mosquitoes to bite 100 healthy sparrows. In the previous experiment he noted that when he allowed mosquitoes to bite 20 sparrows, 14 out of them got malaria. Now he uses the proportion rule.

Statistics are thus a means of summarizing data through the calculation of a mean value. This step is very important as it transforms raw data into information, which can be used to summarized and report results.

Principles of Ratio and Proportion

 

For other questions of the Chapter-2: Solving a Biological Problem, Click the Questions below:

Q No-1: What do you meant by biological method of study?

Q No-2: Describe the steps involved in the solving a problem through biological method?

Q No-3: Describe the steps involved n biological method taking malaria as an example?

Q No-4: Write a comprehensive definition of theory & law or principle?

Q No-6: Justify mathematics as an integral part of the scientific process?

End Chapter Exercises/Review Questions

Click here for MCQs – Biological Problem>>>>

Click here to read, “Understanding The Concept” >>>>

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